Political / Social. The German effort included the first commercial enterprises in the 1850s and 1860s in West Africa, East Africa, the Samoan Islands and the unexplored north-east quarter of New Guinea with adjacent islands. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Germany cooperates economically and culturally with many countries in Africa and Asia, independent from colonial history. Full Text Search Details..., being absent from their own families. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Kaiser-Wilhelmsland Palau Bismarck Archipelago German colonial empire Marshall Islands By conjuring up a German 'black peril' [at their doorstep], Smuts caught the public’s imagination. Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles. GENEALOGY OF THE TERM DECOLONIZATION Staff specialists and the occasional visiting university group conducted soil analyses, developed plant hybrids, experimented with fertilizers, studied vegetable pests and ran courses in agronomy for settlers and natives and performed a host of other tasks. See alsoColonialism; Germany; World War II. It was, he said, a burden and an expense, and he would like to saddle someone else with it.". Germany's five thousand men were no match for South Africa's forty-three thousand soldiers; by mid-May 1915, the South Africans had captured the colony's capital, Windhoek, and driven the Germans to the northeast. Encyclopedia.com. Although some territories' borders were redrawn, the League of Nations' mandate system allowed Great Britain, France, Belgium, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan to extend their wartime control over the former German colonies into the postwar era. After two small engagements, the acting governor Major H. G. von Doering capitulated to the French tirailleurs sénégalaisand the British West African Rifles on 26 August 1914. POST-1945 HISTORICAL CONTEXTS Volker Langbehn and Mohammad SalamaRace, eds. German Cameroon also included northern parts of Gabon and the Congo with western parts of the Central African Republic, southwestern parts of Chad and far eastern parts of Nigeria. Alfred von Tirpitz Furthermore, the German Empire occupied several territories during WW1. The result were several military and genocidal campaigns from the Germans against the natives. 12 Jan. 2021 . The German stat…  The victors retained the German overseas possessions and did so with the belief that Australian, Belgian, British, French, Japanese, New Zealand, Portuguese and South African rule was superior to Germany’s. With the Germans joining the race for the last uncharted territories in Africa and the Pacific that had not yet been carved up, competition for colonies thus involved major European nations, and several lesser powers. 'Politiques et Identités'", 2010, ISBN 978-2-84516-436-9. Short-lived attempts of colonizaton by individual German states had occurred in preceding centuries, but crucial colonial efforts only began in 1884 with the Scramble for Africa. Today, some German colonial coins even are among the scarcest and much sought-after coins that have been minted in Germany until 1918. Therefore, military coinage was minted for several eastern parts: the coins of the 'Oberbefehlshaber OST'. WHEBN0000762770
The German colonial empire (German: Deutsches Kolonialreich) was an overseas domain formed in the late 19th century as part of the German Empire. The German Colonial Empire is the overseas territories of Imperial Germany, including settlements and colonies in Africa, Asia, and Oceania. Furthermore, the German Empire occupied several territories during WW1. Afterwards he researched the effects of these substances by performing autopsies on dead bodies. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Alfred von Tirpitz (1849-1930) was secretary of the navy during the reign of Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany. "German Colonial Empire  Bernhard Dernburg’s declaration that the indigenous population in the protectorates "was the most important factor in our colonies" was affirmed by new laws. As a very distinguished colonial representative said to me the other day: “Here we are talking of t... ...tates and see to what this leads us. " In African protectorates, especially Togoland and German East Africa, "improbably advanced and humane administrations emerged. Settlement in Africa was not popular, and was not a focus for. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. Led by the experienced colonial soldier Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck, German forces began the war by invading Rhodesia, Uganda, and the Belgian Congo. First of all, Germany didn’t exist as a united country until 1871. On 29 August 1914, New Zealand forces took control of German Samoa.  Despite this, the leadership in Berlin committed the nation to the financial support, maintenance, development and defence of these possessions. Germany’s overseas colonies, virtually without hope of reinforcement from Europe, defended themselves with varying degrees of success against Allied attack.. Togoland was conquered by British forces from the Gold Coast (now Ghana) and by French forces from Dahomey (now Benin) in the first month of the war. Featured picture candidates/September-2015, 1884 Establishments in the German Colonial Empire, 1920 Disestablishments in the German Colonial Empire, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2009, Articles with German-language external links, 1884 establishments in the German colonial empire, 1920 disestablishments in the German colonial empire, Tokyo to Tijuana: Gabriele Departing America, In the Fourth Year Anticipations of a World Peace, Deutsche-Schutzgebiete.de ("German Protectorates"). Karl Waldeck: "Gut und Blut für unsern Kaiser", Windhoek 2010, ISBN 978-99945-71-55-0, Historicus Africanus: "Der 1. More than three million Africans were vaccinated against smallpox. Replacing the misfits was a new breed of efficient, humane, colonial civil servant, usually the product of Dernburg's own creation, the ... Colonial Institute at Hamburg. OF DECOLONIZATION Other scholars, however, are skeptical and challenge the continuity thesis. Nevertheless, on 9 July 1915, Governor Theodor Seitz surrendered unconditionally to the South Africans. Excessive Violence
Capital investments by banks were secured with public funds of the imperial treasury to minimize risk. "The Germans, Smuts implied, would endanger western civilization itself. These are colonies settled by and controlled by the German Empire from 1884 to 1919. Moreover, Nazi Germany innovated by applying prevailing racial theories (usually reserv... ...them to include "east European" whites, such as the Poles and the Russians.  When the imperial government invited the 22,000 soldiers mobilized to subdue the Hereros to settle in German South-West Africa, and offered financial aid, only 5% accepted.  This new member of the war cabinet spoke of German schemes for world power, militarization and exploitation of resources. ", Germany's overseas empire was dismantled following defeat in World War I.
The Herero were traditional occupants of the temperate high plains of central Namibia. The loss of the German colonies. The German colonial empire (German: Deutsches Kolonialreich) constituted the overseas colonies, dependencies and territories of Imperial Germany. In 1934 the former colonies were inhabited by 16,774 Germans, of whom about 12,000 lived in the former Southwest African colony. In many major German cities, such as Berlin, Hamburg, Dresden, Münich, Leipzig, and … Encyclopedia of Modern Europe: Europe Since 1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of War and Reconstruction. Both aspirations would become reality, nurtured by a press replete with Kolonialfreunde [supporters of colonial acquisitions] and by a myriad of geographical associations and colonial societies.  The majority of German emigrants chose North America as their destination and not the colonies – of 1,085,124 emigrants between 1887 and 1906, 1,007,574 headed to the United States. The colonies were primarily commercial and plantation regions and did not attract large numbers of German settlers. The German presence (in Africa) was vital for significant achievements in medicine and agriculture. Although also outnumbered, German forces in nearby Cameroons were initially more successful in resis… The principal German colonial possessions were its African holdings (German East Africa, Togoland, German Southwest Africa, and Cameroons) and its Far East territories (German New Guinea, Samoa, the Chinese leasehold of Kiaochow, and a number of small island groups). , German colonial diplomatic efforts remained commercially inspired, "the colonial economy was thriving ... and roads, railways, shipping and telegraph communications were up to the minute. ...Both World Wars were colonial wars fought on European soil. Until their 1871 unification, the German states had not concentrated on the development of a navy, and this essentially had precluded German participation in earlier imperialist scrambles for remote colonial territory – the so-called "place in the sun". Previous short-lived colonisation attempts were made by various German states in the previous centuries, but true colonial attempts were established after the Scramble for Africa in 1884. Defended in most cases only by a very small number of mercenary "protective forces," trained more for maintaining order than for actual combat, Germany's colonies lay largely exposed to the superior colonial forces of powers such as Great Britain and France. Although slavery was partially outlawed in 1905 by Germany, this caused a great deal of resentment and led eventually to revolts by the native population. Events followed a similar course in German Southwest Africa.  Only Togoland and German Samoa became profitable and self-sufficient; the balance sheet for the colonies as a whole revealed a fiscal net loss for the empire. African colony of the German Empire from 1884 to 1916 in the region of today's Republic of Cameroon. ho... ...a few outlying rulers, of unknown names and titles upon the margins of his empire, there were tributary lieutenants and barbarous reguli, the obscure ... ...e with the younger Antonia, (daughter of Mark Anthony,) had the celebrated Germanicus, and Claudius, (afterwards emperor.) World War One made Germany lost its colonial empire. German nationalism rapidly shifted from its liberal and democratic character in 1848, called Pan-Germanism, to Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarck's pragmatic Realpolitik. The far right in Fra... Full Text Search Details...red in his perceptions as reality and not a part of his dreams. Bismarck sought to extend Hohenzollern hegemony throughout t… Fo... ...e to be had. Herero "The British Other on African soil: the rise of nationalism in colonial German travel writing on Africa,", Strandmann, Hartmut Pogge von. Encyclopedia of Modern Europe: Europe Since 1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of War and Reconstruction.  An estimated 3000 skulls were sent to Germany for study. ", As Bismarck was converted to the colonial idea by 1884, he favored "chartered company" land management rather than establishment of colonial government due to financial considerations. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. At that time, the German penchant for giving muscle priority over patience contributed to continued unrest. Europe's (and the United States') annals of colonialism have prepared it for the range of phenomena associated with... ...acial theories, from slave labour to the forcible annexation of territory. Cultures and civilizations which frown upon individualism and ... ...economic miracle turns out to have been a fraud-laced bubble. By the close of 1916, all was moot; “the German colonies except the one in East Africa had surrendered” to large invading forces. Encyclopedia.com. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. That is the fate of all long-term advantage and dominance which Empires suffer from.  The conservative Bülow government barely survived, but in January 1907 the newly elected Reichstag imposed a "complete overhaul" upon the colonial service. It is on particular political issues where Wempe’s analysis shines, such as the case of the German settlers permitted to remain in South West Africa (today Namibia). In the Pacific, Britain's ally Japan declared war on Germany in 1914 and quickly seized several of Germany's island colonies, the Mariana, Caroline and Marshall Islands, with virtually no resistance.  Only in East Africa it would then be two more years before the German flag disappeared from Africa and every German colonial territory was under Allied occupation. Subsequent historians would commend German colonialism in those years as "an engine of modernization with far-reaching effects for the future.  Together with Theodor Mollison he also experimented upon Herero prisoners. German colonial empire - Wikipedia Germany’s overseas colonial empire was established rather late compared to other European powers like Spain, France, Great-Britain and the Netherlands. Gemeaux (de), Christine,(dir., présentation et conclusion): "Empires et colonies.  The numerous cases of mixed offspring upset the German colonial administration and the obsession with racial purity. Although also outnumbered, German forces in nearby Cameroons were initially more successful in resisting the British and French troops; many German soldiers fought on for more than a year in the colony's interior before fleeing in February 1916 to neutral Spanish Guinea. Entrenched incompetents were screened out and summarily removed from office and "not a few had to stand trial. 110 talking about this. The agit... ...ullest and amplest form upon their final discharge, viz. German Cameroon also included northern parts of Gabon and the Congo with western parts of the Central African Republic, southwestern parts of Chad and far eastern parts of Nigeria. The settlers were a particular kind of exile. These early agreements with local entities, however, later formed the basis for annexation treaties, diplomatic support and military protection by the German Empire. . Germans first became active as traders in the Pacific in the mid-nineteenth century, in which German merchants developed trading interests in Samoa, the Bismarck Archipelago, and the Marshall and Gilbert Islands.  German traders and merchants began to establish themselves in the African Cameroon delta and the mainland coast across from Zanzibar. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Hermann Detzner and one Captain Nugent, R.A., had charge of a joint project to demarcate the British and German frontiers of Cameroon, which was published in 1913.  Political and economic subjugation of Herero and Nama was envisioned, both the colonial authorities and settlers were of the opinion that native Africans were to be a lower class, their land seized and handed over to settlers and companies, while the remaining population was to be put in reservations; the Germans planned to make a colony inhabited predominately by whites:a "new African Germany" , The established merchants and plantation operators in the African colonies frequently managed to sway government policies. Several of the African colonies remained powder kegs throughout this phase (and beyond).  Successful German plantation operators realized the benefits of systematic scientific inquiry and instituted and maintained their own stations with their own personnel, who further engaged in exploration and documentation of the native fauna and flora. Such preparations, however, were no match for the Japanese forces. Unified in the early 1870s, the chancellor of this time period was Otto von Bismarck.  Other experiments were made by Doctor Bofinger, who injected Herero who were suffering from scurvy with various substances including arsenic and opium. " Idealists often volunteered for selection and appointment to government posts, others with an entrepreneurial bent labored to swell the dividends at home for the Hanseatic trading houses and shipping lines. There were also suspicions and reports of colonial malfeasance, corruption and brutality in some protectorates, and Lutheran and Roman Catholic missionaries dispatched disturbing reports to their mission headquarters in Germany. Individual countries that were mandataries of the League of Nations were given the right to govern the colonies with the task of preparing them for eventual independence. The German Colonial Empire (German: Deutsches Kolonialreich) constituted the overseas colonies, dependencies and territories of the German Empire. Each territory of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Na…, THE CAUSE OF DECOLONIZATION Some historians argue that Germany's role in southwestern Africa gave rise to an emphasis on racial superiority at home, which in turn was used by the Nazis. Translated by Diane Webb. I am no man for colonies" and "remained as contemptuous of all colonial dreams as ever. Every African protectorate built rail lines to the interior, every colony in Africa and the Pacific established the beginnings of a public school system, every colony built and staffed hospitals. German Colonial Empire.. [Woodruff D Smith] -- Although Germany's short-lived colonial empire (1884-1918) was neither large nor successful, it is historically significant. We cannot tole... ...to Germany. The German stat… German South West Africa was the only African colony designated as a Class C mandate, meaning that the indigenous population was judged incapable of even limited self-government and the colony to be administered under the laws of the mandatory as an integral portion of its territory, however South Africa never annexed the country outright although Smuts did toy with the idea. So; three round rocks, equals three round eggs. The German colonial empire was the overseas territories of Imperial Germany. Seizing the opportunity to build its own empire, the Japanese on 15 August 1914 issued an ultimatum to Berlin demanding that Germany remove its warships from the Chinese area of Shantung and hand over the leasehold of ", During the Herero genocide Eugen Fischer, a German scientist, came to the concentration camps to conduct medical experiments on race, using children of Herero people and mulatto children of Herero women and German men as test subjects. The German Colonial Empire was a short lived phenomenon but one that played an important role in the domestic poltics of the German Reich prior to WWI. " Overhaul of the colonial administrative apparatus thus set the stage for the final and most promising period of German colonialism. You'll notice, however, that Prussia had not managed to get the southern German states to join its Confederation. There are hardly any special ties between modern Germany and its former colonies; for example, there is no postcolonial league comparable to the British Commonwealth of Nations or French Francophonie. " The acquisition and the expansion of colonies were accomplished in a variety of ways, but principally through mercantile domination and pretexts that were always economic.  In the very next year Bismarck shed personal involvement when "he abandoned his colonial drive as suddenly and casually as he had started it" as if he had committed an error in judgment that could confuse the substance of his more significant policies. Laboriously assembled business conglomerates go to... ...n) history in the 19th century. Following the outbreak of hostilities in August 1914, Germany's enemies moved quickly against its colonies. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. New Haven, Conn., 1967. Kaiser Wilhelm II understood and lamented his nation's position as colonial followers rather than leaders. Company land acquisitions and stewardship, Washausen, p. 67-114; the West and East Africa firms, once the military command was able to harness this aggressiveness through training, the German Askari forces of the, Miller, p. 21, school system in German East Africa; Garfield, p. 83, "hundreds of thousands of African children were in school"; Schultz-Naumann, p. 181, school system and Chinese student enrollment in Kiautschou; Davidson, p. 100, New Zealand building on the German educational infrastructure, Miller, p. 68, German East Africa, Tanga, shelling of hospital by HMS, Lewthwaite, p. 149-151, in Samoa "German authorities implemented policies to draw [locals] into the stream of economic life," the colonial government enforced that native cultivable land could not be sold; Miller, p. 20, in German East Africa "new land laws sharply curtailed expropriation of tribal acreage " and "African cultivators were encouraged to grow cash crops, with technical aid from agronomists, guaranteed prices and government assistance in marketing the produce.". 7 talking about this. , British placement of surrogate responsibility for former German colonies on white-settler dominions was at the time determined to be the most expedient option for the British government — and an appropriate reward for the Dominions having fulfilled their "great and urgent imperial service" through military intervention at the behest of and for Great Britain. New York, 2004. Short-lived attempts of colonization by individual German states ha Germany seemed destined to play catch-up. , President Wilson saw the League of Nations as "'residuary trustee' for the [German] colonies" captured and occupied by "rapacious conquerors". Kiaochow. The doctrine of Germany’s guilt as a uniquely brutal and cruel colonial power originated during the [early days of] war, not before.”. Germany seemed destined to play catch-up. German New Guinea (Deutsch-Neuguinea) consisted of the northeastern part of the island of New Guinea and several nearby island groups and was the first part of the German colonial empire. Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey, considered still a moderate in 1911, was willing to “study the map of Africa in a pro-German spirit.” Britain further recognized that Germany really had little of value to offer in territorial transactions, however, advice to Grey and Prime Minister H. H. Asquith hardened by early 1914 “to stop the trend of what the advisers considered Germany’s taking and Britain’s giving.”, The 1914  To garner support, the public in Britain and especially in the Dominions was informed that military bases would be built in German colonies, from which “at every opportunity German ships will dash from cover to harry and destroy our commerce ... [and] raid our coasts.” Thus, it was in the interest of the Dominions to destroy Germany’s colonies, thereby ensuring their own safety and the British Empire’s security. Short-lived colonial efforts by individual German states had occurred in preceding centuries, but Imperial Germany's colonial efforts began in 1884. , Many Germans in the late 19th century viewed colonial acquisitions as a true indication of having achieved nationhood. ", In the 1920s, some individuals and the German Colonial Society fought for the idea of colonialism.
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